Present perfect and past perfect auxiliary verbs
The auxiliaries have and had are used as 'helping' verbs in the construction of the perfect and past perfect forms of all main verbs. They are often pronounced as contracted weak forms in affirmative sentences and contracted weak forms are also used in the negative. Study the following examples and say them to yourself as you read them:
- 'They've been living in Calcutta for three years now, but they still haven't got used to the heat.'
- 'He's collected his medication from the chemist, but he hasn't actually taken any of the pills yet.'
- 'Have you seen my green pullover anywhere, Sandra?' 'No, sorry, I haven't.'
- 'This was a lie, for she'd borrowed his green pullover and had forgotten to return it.'
- 'They told me that they'd lived in Wiltshire all their lives, but had never visited Stonehenge.'
- 'We have paid for the flights, but we haven't paid the travel insurance yet.